In this series, Yogic terminologies will be taken up and their -
- Etymological analysis,
- Lexical descriptions and
- Textual occurrences in Yogic texts and their commentaries, as available, will be presented. Three texts - Yogasūtra, Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā and Bhagavad-gītā are consulted for textual occurrences portion.
Śabda-yoga is intended to help students, teachers, and professionals of Yoga to develop a sound grammatical, contextual, and thereby an authentic and immersive understanding of Yoga terminologies.
List of Words
The words that appear in the Yoga-sūtras will be sequentially dealt initially and after that terms from other prominent Yoga texts will be taken up. Every śabda-yoga article will analyse five terms. The five terms for this article are –
Note: The Word Tadā (from Yogasūtra) has been skipped, as it is not a very uncommon word, or a word that has any special significance in the context of Yoga-sūtras. Tadā simply means then. Then refers to the time when there are no Vṛttis in the Citta. (refer Sūtra 1.3).
Terms from Yoga-sūtras 2,3 of chapter 1 are covered in this part of Śabda-yoga.
नि+रुध्+घञ् = निरोधः
ni+rudh+ghañ = nirodhaḥ
The root word is Rudh. The meaning of the root is आवरणम् āvaraṇam - to surround. Other meanings such as to besiege, to enclose, to obstruct and to obscure are also given
The prefix is ni. The prefix here is probably used to indicate the meaning नितराम् nitarām – completely (while other meanings such as certainly, Exceedingly and so on also exist for the term) 
The suffix is ghañ is used in the sense of bhava – the act. This suffix is added as the grammatical rule भावे bhāve (aṣṭādhyāyī 3.3.18)
Hence the derivation of the word would be - नितरां रुध्यते इति निरोधः - nitarāṃ rudhyate iti nirodhaḥ – the act of complete obstruction
Amarakośa has the following entry on the term Nirodha -
निग्रहस्तु निरोधः स्याद् (३.२.१३)
nigrahastu nirodhaḥ syād
Nirodha means nigraha (Keeping in check, restraint, curbing)
It is to be noted from the etymology and lexicon that the meaning of the word in general ranges anywhere between complete obstruction to keeping check. It would now be interesting to see the meaning that Yogic texts fix for the word within the range of this meaning.
Textual occurrences - Yogic texts
There are four occurrences of the word in the Yogasūtra. Of the four, three are found in the first Pāda itself and the fourth and last reference is the third chapter.
The four references and their contextual meanings are briefly mentioned below -
The views of the commentators
Salient inputs from the traditional commentaries are presented below for the very first usage of the term Nirodha in the text. Only Bhoja’s definition is direct whereas other describe the state of Yoga from where the meaning of the word Nirodha can also be understood.
- Vācaspati-miśra - निरुध्यन्ते यस्मिन्प्रमाणादिवृत्तयोऽवस्थाविशेषे चित्तस्य - nirudhyante yasminpramāṇādivṛttayo'vasthāviśeṣe cittasya – (Yoga) is that state of mind in which the Vṛttis (activities/modifications of the Citta) are obstructed.
- Bhoja defines Nirodha as - निरोधो बहिर्मुखतया परिणतिविच्छेदादन्तर्मुखतया प्रतिलोमपरिणामेन स्वकारणे लयःnirodho bahirmukhatayā pariṇativicchedādantarmukhatayā pratilomapariṇāmena svakāraṇe layaḥ - Obstruction and reversal of the outwardly changes (of the Vṛttis of the citta) and making (them) turn inwards and their dissolution in their cause (ultimately Prakṛti)
- Sadaśivabrahmendra and others state that – राजसतामसवृत्तिनिरोधः- rājasatāmasa-vṛttinirodhaḥ - the obstruction of the Rājasic and Tāmasic activities of the mind is Nirodha.
- Sri T Krishnamacharya in his Yogavallī commentary states - ध्यानविरोधियावद्बाह्यविषयकचित्तपरिणामनिरोध इत्यर्थः – dhyānavirodhi-yāvadbāhyaviṣayaka-cittapariṇāmanirodha ityarthaḥ – it is the obstruction of all those activities that are opposed to Dhyāna.
Thus, it could be seen from the definition/description of the term Nirodha that, it is a complete obstruction of Vṛttis or obstruction of Vṛttis excluding Sāttvik ones.
2. अभ्यासवैराग्याभ्यां तन्निरोधः ॥१.१२॥ - abhyāsavairāgyābhyāṁ tannirodhaḥ ॥12॥ - This Sūtra describes abhyāsa and Vairāgya as the twp-fold means to attain the state of Nirodha.
3. तस्यापि निरोधे सर्वनिरोधान्निर्बीजः समाधिः ॥१.५१॥ - tasyāpi nirodhe sarvanirodhānnirbījaḥ samādhiḥ ॥51॥ - This Sūtra states that by obstruction of Saṃskāras generated by ṛtambharā-prajñā (by Para-vairāgya) everything (Vṛttis and Saṃskāras) gets obstructed and the ultimate state of Nirbīja is attained.
4. व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोरभिभवप्रादुर्भावौ निरोधक्षणचितान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः॥३.९॥ vyutthānanirodhasaṁskārayorabhibhavaprādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇacitānvayo nirodhapariṇāmaḥ ॥ 3.9 ॥ - This Sūtra speaks about Nirodha-Pariṇāma. This is one among the three Yogic Pariṇāmas(changes/modifications) that the Citta undergoes. The other two being Samādhi-pariṇāma and Ekāgratā-pariṇāma. Nirodha-pariṇāma is a change at the level of Saṃskāras in the Citta where the outwardly subliminal impressions (Saṃskāras) are subdued and the manifestation of subliminal impressions (Saṃskāras) that lead to Nirodha manifest.
The term Nirodha is not found in this text. There are occurrences of couple of related terms – Niruddha and Nirudhya. The two instances are as follows -
- यत्रोपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योगसेवया।
यत्र चैवात्मनाऽऽत्मानं पश्यन्नात्मनि तुष्यति।।20।।
yatroparamate cittaṃ niruddhaṃ yogasevayā.
yatra caivātmanā''tmānaṃ paśyannātmani tuṣyati..6.20..
It is mentioned in this sixth chapter reference that - By Yogic way of restraining (niruddha) the activities of the mind quietude is attained.
- सर्वद्वाराणिसंयम्यमनोहृदिनिरुध्य च।
मूर्ध्न्याधायात्मनः प्राणमास्थितो योगधारणाम्।।8.12।।
sarvadvārāṇi saṃyamya mano hṛdi nirudhya ca.
mūrdhnyādhāyātmanaḥ prāṇamāsthito yogadhāraṇām..8.12..
Here Yoga-Dhāraṇā is discussed. It is mentioned here that the mind has to be restrained (nirudhya) in the heart (mid-chest region) and so on.
The word Nirodha and associated expressions are found in nine verses. A range of expressions such as – Nirodha, Nirodhaka, (a)nirodhataḥ, Nirodhayet, Nirudhya & Nirodhana are found in the text. It is interesting to note that these expressions are used in the context of āsana, prāṇāyāma and mudrās and not to indicate restraining/cessation of the activities of the mind as in the Yoga-sūtras.
- गुदंनिरुध्य गुल्फाभ्यां व्युत्क्रमेण समाहितः ।
कूर्मासनं भवेदेतदिति योगविदो विदु ॥१.२२ ॥
gudaṁ nirudhya gulphābhyāṁ vyutkrameṇa samāhitaḥ ।
kūrmāsanaṁ bhavedetaditi yogavido vidu ॥1.22 ॥ - In the description of kūrmāsana, the word Nirudhya (after obstructing/pressing) is used. The pressing of anus with heels is mentioned here.
योगी स्थाणुत्वमाप्नोति ततो वायुं निरोधयेत् ॥ २.२ ॥
cale vāte calaṁ cittaṁ niścale niścalaṁ bhavet ।
yogī sthāṇutvamāpnoti tato vāyuṁ nirodhayet ॥2.2॥ - This is a popular verse that mentions the mutual connect of the mind and the breath. The expression Nirodhayet (one should restrain/obstruct) is found here. To control the mind, it is essential to control breath hence regulate/obstruct breath (vāyuṁ nirodhayet - practice prāṇāyāma).
मरणं तस्य निष्क्रान्तिः ततो वायुं निरोधयेत् ॥ २.३ ॥
yāvadvāyuḥ sthito dehe tāvajjivanamucyate ।
maraṇaṁ tasya niṣkrāntiḥ tato vāyuṁ nirodhayet ॥ 2.3 ॥ - Similar to the verse above (2.2) here also the expression Nirodhayet (one should restrain/obstruct) is found in the context of prāṇāyāma. However, the reason stated for prāṇāyāma is different. As long as the breath stays in the body, one is alive. Hence restrain (Nirodhayet) the breath within.
4. आकेशादानखाग्राच्चनिरोधावधि कुम्भयेद् ।
ततः शनैः सव्यनाड्या रेचयेत् पवनं शनैः ॥२.४९॥
ā keśādānakhāgrācca nirodhāvadhi kumbhayed ।
tataḥ śanaiḥ savyanāḍyā recayet pavanaṁ śanaiḥ ॥ 2.49 ॥ - The word nirodhāvadhi (limit of restraining) occurs while discussing sūryabhedana-prāṇāyāma. This indicates the limits of restraining the breath within (from the hair on the head to the finger nail in the feet) after inhaling through right nostril.
5. राजदन्तस्थजिह्वायां बन्धः शस्तो भवेदिति ॥ ३.२२.B॥
अयं तु सर्वनाडीनामूर्ध्वगतिनिरोधकः । ॥ ३.२३.A॥
rājadantasthajihvāyāṃ bandhaḥ śasto bhavediti॥3.22.b॥
ayaṃ tu sarvanāḍīnāmūrdhvagatinirodhakaḥ ॥3.23.a॥ -The word Nirodhaka is used in the context of the Jihvābandha. It refers to the capability of this practice to block the movement of the Nāḍīs (Prāṇa in it) in the upper direction and channelize it in Suṣumnā Nāḍī .
बोधयित्वा सुषुम्नायां प्रविशेदनिरोधतः ॥ ४.१९ ॥
vāyuḥ paricito yasmādagninā saha kuṇḍalīm ।
bodhayitvā suṣumnāyāṁ praviśedanirodhataḥ ॥ 4.19 ॥ - The expression anirodhataḥ (without being obstructed) is found in the initial portion of the fourth chapter. This verse speaks about the process of awakening the kuṇḍalī. When kuṇḍalī is awakened, Vāyu travels in suṣumnā channel without any obstruction (anirodhataḥ).
सर्वदा पूजयेल्लिङ्गं दिवारात्रिनिरोधतः ॥ ४।४२ ॥
divā na pūjayelliṅgaṁ rātrau caiva na pūjayet ।
sarvadā pūjayelliṅgaṁ divārātrinirodhataḥ ॥ 4.42 ॥ -The expression Nirodhataḥ (by obstructing) is found in this verse that mentions the need to get Prāṇa in Suṣumnā for meditation to happen well. It is stated here that, by the obstruction (Nirodhataḥ) of its movement in sūrya and Candra Nāḍīs, Prāṇa will flow in Suṣumnā.
स्थित्वा सदैव सुस्थाने ब्रह्मरन्ध्रे निरोधयेत् ॥ ४.१६ ॥
jñātvā suṣumnāsadbhedaṁ kṛtvā vāyuṁ ca madhyagam ।
sthitvā sadaiva susthāne brahmarandhre nirodhayet ॥ 4.16 ॥ - In this verse also the same expression as above (quote 3) - nirodhayet (one should restrain/obstruct) is found. The context of discussion is as follows - Prāṇalaya (absorption of Prāṇa) leads manolaya (absorption of the mind). If one restrains prāṇa in Brahmarandhra – then it gets dissolved, absorbed there and by that Manolaya (dissolution/absorption of the mind) also happens.
9. श्रवणपुटनयनयुगलघ्राणमुखानांनिरोधनं कार्यम् ।
शुद्धसुषुम्ना सरणौ स्फुटममलः श्रूयते नादः ॥ ४.६८ ॥
śravaṇapuṭanayanayugalaghrāṇamukhānāṁ nirodhanaṁ kāryam ।
śuddhasuṣumnā saraṇau sphuṭamamalaḥ śrūyate nādaḥ ॥ 4.68 ॥ - The expression Nirodhana (blocking) is found here. This is a description of ṣaṇmukhīmudrā that facilitates the practice of Nādānusandhāna. The blocking of the ears, by the thumbs is to be done so that external noises are not heard and one can focus on the Nāda within.
From the above textual references, it can be seen that while in Bhagavad-gītā and Yogasūtra we find Nirodha and associated expressions connected solely to the activities of the mind, in Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā, Nirodha is found freely being used in the context of the body, breath etc also.
दृश्+तृच् = द्रष्टा
dṛś+tṛc = draṣṭā
The root here is dṛś. The meaning of the root is prekṣaṇa - to see
The suffix is tṛc. It is used to indicate kartā – the doer.
The suffix is added to the root as per the grammar rule ण्वुल्तृचौ ṇvultṛcau (aṣṭādhyāyī 3.1.133)
So the derivate statement is पश्यति इति द्रष्टा - paśyati iti draṣṭā – the one who sees is the seer.
Lexicon – There are no entries for this term in amarakośa.
Textual occurrences - Yogic texts
There are four occurrences of the term in this text.
- तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम् ॥ १.३ ॥ tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe'vasthānam .. 1.3 .. – This is the very third Sūtra of the text. It is stated here that, when in the state of Yoga – one is established in the conscious nature of the draṣṭa.
- द्रष्टृदृश्ययोः संयोगो हेयहेतुः ॥ २.१७ ॥ draṣṭṛdṛśyayoḥ saṃyogo heyahetuḥ .. 2.17 .. – This is a very important Sūtra where the cause of suffering according to Yoga philosophy is stated. The conjunction of the consciousness (draṣṭā) and matter, the seen ( dṛśya) is the cause of suffering.
- द्रष्टा दृशिमात्रः शुद्धोऽपि प्रत्ययानुपश्यः ॥ २.२० ॥ draṣṭā dṛśimātraḥ śuddho'pi pratyayānupaśyaḥ .. 2.20 .. – This Sūtra defines draṣṭā as pure awareness/consciousness that still gets reflected in the activities of the mind.
- द्रष्टृदृश्योपरक्तं चित्तं सर्वार्थम् ॥ ४.२३ ॥ draṣṭṛdṛśyoparaktaṃ cittaṃ sarvārtham .. 4.23 .. – The unique nature of the mind is brought out in this Sūtra. It presents the cause for the Buddhists mistaking the mind as consciousness. In Citta- the reflection of both the consciousness (draṣṭā) and also the objects of world (dṛśya) outside - land. This can be understood by keen observation. Unable to separate the reflection of the consciousness in citta from the citta, Buddhists confuse the Citta to be the consciousness.
Two connected expressions are found in this text - draṣṭā & upadraṣṭā.
- नान्यं गुणेभ्यः कर्तारं यदा द्रष्टानुपश्यति ।
गुणेभ्यश्च परं वेत्ति मद्भावं सोऽधिगच्छति ॥ १४.१९ ॥
nānyaṃ guṇebhyaḥ kartāraṃ yadā draṣṭānupaśyati .
guṇebhyaśca paraṃ vetti madbhāvaṃ so'dhigacchati ॥14.19॥ - In this verse the word draṣṭā is used to indicate the keen observer & scholar who observes his mind and consciousness and sees that it is the Guṇas that act and nothing else. By this, the observer (draṣṭā) –is able to see beyond the guṇas and realize the supreme being. It is worth noting that - Ācārya Śaṅkarabhagavatpāda in his commentary – defines draṣṭā – in this verse, as vidvān (scholar). Thus, unlike the Yoga-sūtras here draṣṭā is not used to indicate pure consciousness.
- उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः ।
परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः ॥ १३.२२ ॥
upadraṣṭānumantā ca bhartā bhoktā maheśvaraḥ .
paramātmeti cāpyukto dehe'sminpuruṣaḥ paraḥ ॥13.22॥ - This verse uses the term upadraṣṭā. The consciousness is indicated by this term. Ācārya Śaṅkarabhagavatpāda
explains upadraṣṭā as follows - …समीपस्थः सन् स्वयम् अव्यापृतः... samīpasthaḥ san svayam avyāpṛtaḥ... being in close proximity (the consciousness) observes and does not get involved in the actions. This upadraṣṭā of the Gītā is comparable to the draṣṭā of the Yoga-sūtras.
Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā - The expression or associated expressions are not found in this text.
स्वस्य रूपम् = स्वरूपम्
svasya rūpam = Svarūpam
This is a compound term.
Svasya of oneself (first term), Rūpam – form (second term) - One’s own form
This is a ṣaṣṭhītatpuruṣa compound as per the grammatical rule षष्ठी ṣaṣṭhī (aṣṭādhyāyī 2.2.8)
There are two references in Amarakośa for Svarūpa.
…स्वरूपं च स्वभावश्च निसर्गश्च …(1.7.38)
… Svarūpa, svabhāva, nisarga indicate the meaning nature.
प्राप्तरूपस्वरूपाभिरूपा बुधमनोज्ञयोः (3.3.131)
The words prāptarūpa, Svarūpa, abhirūpa are used to indicate an intelligent person. It can also be used to indicate a beautiful entity.
Textual occurrences - Yogic texts
There are nine occurrences of the term Svarūpa in this text. The following is a chapter-wise summary.
Chapter 1 – 2 occurrences
- तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम् ॥ १.३ ॥ - tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe'vasthānam .. 1.3 .. – The consciousness (seer) is established in its original (conscious) form (svarūpa) during the state of Yoga.
- स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासा निर्वितर्का ॥ १.४३ ॥ - smṛtipariśuddhau Svarūpaśūnyevārthamātranirbhāsā nirvitarkā .. 1.43 .. – The Svarūpa or the form here, refers to that of the mind. When the mind reaches the state of Nirvitarka-samādhi, it is as if it loses its own form (Svarūpa) and completely attains the form of the object of focus.
Chapter 2 – 2 occurrences
- स्वस्वामिशक्त्योः स्वरूपोपलब्धिहेतुः संयोगः ॥ २.२३ ॥
svasvāmiśaktyoḥ svarūpopalabdhihetuḥ saṃyogaḥ .. 2.23 .. – Here Svarūpa of two entities are discussed. When the Svarūpa of the sva – the matter – the possession of the consciousness – the dṛśya - is known, then it is called as Bhoga (worldly experience/pleasures).
When the Svarūpa of svāmi – the one who possesses – the consciousness - draṣṭā - is known - then it is called apavarga (liberation). Both Bhoga and Apavarga are caused by the conjunction saṃyoga of sva and svāmi. It is interesting to note the centrality of the term Svarūpa in the context of both dimensions of experiences (Bhoga and Apavarga) of the consciousness.
- स्वविषयासंप्रयोगे चितस्वरूपानुकार इवेन्द्रियाणां प्रत्याहारः ॥ २.५४ ॥
svaviṣayāsaṃprayoge citasvarūpānukāra ivendriyāṇāṃ pratyāhāraḥ .. 2.54 .. – The term Svarūpa here is used in the context of the definition of the fifth limb of Yoga – Pratyāhāra. When the senses do not get associated with their respective objects and as if imitate the form (Svarūpa) that the citta takes, it is called as Pratyāhāra. The commentators clarify that the citta operates at a subtle level and the senses operate at a gross level. Hence imitation of citta’s Svarūpa by the senses as such cannot happen. So it is stated “as if”. The essence is – the absolute obedience of the senses in not dissipating/distracting the focus of the mind which tries to take the form (Svarūpa) of object of meditation.
Chapter 3 – 3 occurrences
- तदेवार्थमात्रनिर्भासं स्वरूपशून्यमिव समाधिः ॥ ३.३ ॥ - tadevārthamātranirbhāsaṃ Svarūpaśūnyamiva samādhiḥ .. 3.3 .. The meaning of the term Svarūpa is the same as has been discussed above in the reference 1.43.
- स्थूलस्वरूपसूक्ष्मान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमाद्भूतजयः ॥ ३.४४ ॥ - sthūlaSvarūpasūkṣmānvayārthavattvasaṃyamād bhūtajayaḥ .. 3.44 ..
- ग्रहणस्वरूपास्मितान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमादिन्द्रियजयः ॥ ३.४७ ॥ - grahaṇasvarūpāsmitānvayārthavattvasaṃyamādindriyajayaḥ .. 3.47 .. – References 3.44 & 3.47 use the word Svarūpa in a unique technical sense. Towards the attainment of bhūtajaya (complete control over the elements) and indriyajaya (Complete control over the senses) – five levels (from gross to subtle levels) of Samyama (Dhāraṇā-Dhyāna-Samādhi) is advised on the Bhūtas and Indiryas respectively. From the gross level the second/next level of Bhūtas and Indiryas is Svarūpa . Svarūpa of Bhūtas according to Sadāśiva Brahmendra’s commentary to this Sūtra is – काठिन्य-स्नेहौष्ण्य-प्रेरणा-सर्वगतत्व-लक्षण-स्वरूपम् - kāṭhinyasnehauṣṇya-preraṇāsarvagatatva-lakṣaṇaSvarūpam –The toughness (of the earth), the binding nature (of the water), heat (of the fire), the nature of inducing movement (in the wind) and all pervasive nature (of the space). In the case of Indriyas, their Svarūpa , is stated in simpler terms by Sadāśiva Brahmendra in his commentary as प्रकाशकत्वम् prakāśakatvam - the ability to shine light on objects/ reveal the nature of the objects.
Chapter 4 – 2 occurrences
- अतीतानागतं स्वरूपतोऽस्त्यध्वभेदाद्धर्माणाम् ॥ ४.१२ ॥ - atītānāgataṃ Svarūpato'styadhvabhedāddharmāṇām .. 4.12 .. – This Sūtra establishs the views that – the world in all its dimensions is a reality and not an imagination or just a projection unlike the Buddhist or the Vedāntis. Even the things of the past and the things of the future also exist in their true form (Svarūpa) (and not in mere imagination). In the subsequent Sūtra the how of this is clarified - the Svarūpa of things present is manifest, whereas the Svarūpa of the things of the past and future are un-manifest but exist.
- पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानां प्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति ॥ ४.३४ ॥- puruṣārthaśūnyānāṃ guṇānāṃ pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṃ Svarūpapratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti .. 4.34 .. – The Svarūpa-pratiṣṭhā – establishment in true nature is comparable to the svarūpe avasthānam stated in Sūtra 3 earlier. While it can be stated that svarūpe avasthānam (staying in the pure conscious state) – which is but a glimpse of Kaivalya – happens during the state of Yoga (as long as the state of Samādhi lasts), ultimate establishment in the pure conscious form - Svarūpapratiṣṭhā – is attained when the guṇas attain pratiprasava (rolling back into their causal state) once for all.
Thus it can be seen the term Svarūpa, a very common term in Saṃskṛta language has many shades of meanings in Yoga-sūtras depending upon the context.
While the word rūpa is found in its various forms (rūpa, viśvarūpa, ugrarūpa, anantarūpa ) in this text, the word Svarūpa is not found.
There is just one reference to the utilization of this term in the text.
ततो यातो वह्न्यपानौ प्राणमुष्णस्वरूपकम् ।
तेनात्यन्तप्रदीप्तस्तु ज्वलनो देहजस्तथा ॥ ३.६७ ॥
tato yāto vahnyapānau prāṇamuṣṇasvarūpakam ।
tenātyantapradīptastu jvalano dehajastathā ॥ 3.67 .. – The process of awakening of kuṇḍalī is being described here. The verse states that the apāna and jaṭharāgni reach the prāṇa which is alredy of the nature of being hot(uṣṇa-svarūpaka).
अव+स्था+ल्युट् = अवस्थानम्
ava+sthā+lyuṭ = avasthānam
The prefix is ava. It indicatesदशा – daśā – the state.
The root word is sthā that means गतिनिवृत्तिः gatinivṛttiḥ - absence of movement
The suffix is lyuṭ that is used to indicate bhāva – the act of. The suffix is added by the grammatical rule ल्युट् च lyuṭ ca (aṣṭādhyāyī 3.3.115).
The derivative statement for the word would be अवस्थीयते इति अवस्थानम् - avasthīyate iti avasthānam – the act, the state of staying or lack of movement is avasthāna.
Lexicon – The word is not found in amarakośa
Textual Occurrences - In Yoga texts
There is a lonely reference to this term here. It is as follows -
तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम् ॥ १.३ ॥
tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe'vasthānam .. 1.3 .. – The Consciousness is established (avasthana) in its own form during Yoga.
Bhagavad-gītā & Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā – The word is not found in both these texts-
This word is derived in two levels. First the word Sarūpa is arrived at and from that the word sārūpyam is derived.
समानं रूपं यस्य सः सरूप:
samānaṃ rūpaṃ yasya saḥ sarūpaḥ
The one who has a similar form is sarūpa
At the first level it is a compound where the word sarūpa is arrived at by combining the words
Samāna (similar/identical) and rūpa (form). They are combined as per the Bahuvrīhi compound rule तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे tena saheti tulyayoge (aṣṭādhyāyī 2.2.28)
सरूप+ष्यञ् = सारूप्यम्
sarūpa+ṣyañ = sārūpyam
The suffix ṣyañ is added to the word sarūpa to denote the nature or attribute. The suffix is added as per the grammar rule गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च guṇavacanabrāhmaṇādibhyaḥ karmaṇi ca (aṣṭādhyāyī 5.1.124)
Hence the derivative statement would be - सरूपस्य भावः सारूप्यम् sarūpasya bhāvaḥ sārūpyam - The nature of sarūpa is sārūpyam (identical nature/form)
Lexicon – This term is not found in Amarakośa.
Textual Occurrences - Yoga Texts
There is just one occurrence of this term in this text.
वृत्तिसारूप्यमितरत्र ॥ १.४ ॥
vṛttisārūpyamitaratra .. 1.4 ..- The Sūtra states that when not in state of Yoga, the form of the consciousness attains (reflects) the - form similar - (sārūpya) to that of the activities of the mind (Vṛttis).
Bhagavad-gītā & Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā – This term is not found in these two texts.
It is to be noted that, while the term sārūpya is generally found in āgamas & purāṇas and other divinity oriented systems of knowledge– in Yogic context from among the three major texts considered – it is seen exclusively in Yoga-sūtras only.
References and web-tools utilized:
- Advaita sharada - https://advaitasharada.sringeri.net/
- aṣṭādhyāyī - https://ashtadhyayi.com/
- Aksharamukha - https://aksharamukha.appspot.com/
- Avyayakośaḥ, śrīśrīvatsāṅkācāryaḥ, saṃskṛtavidyāsamitiḥ, chennai, 2004
- Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana alias amarakoṣa of amarasiṃha with the commentary vyākhyāsudhā or rāmāśramī by bhānuji dīkṣita, Edited with notes by M.M.Pandit Shivadatta Dadimatha, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Prathisthan, Delhi, Reprint 2002
- Yoga-vaiśāradī - https://kymyogavaisharadi.org/